On this page you can find news and links to relevant websites and reports.


Breastfeeding; where possible breastmilk should be the feed of choice for all infants

News and links 1International guidance recommends that breastmilk should be the preferred choice of feed for infants, with current guidelines from the World-Health-Organisation (WHO) stating infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months-of-life and in combination with complementary food until 2 years-of-life (1-3). Breastmilk confers many advantages to infants and mothers as well as promoting the formation of the parental bond (4), as well as being associated with a reduction in healthcare costs by improving the health of both mothers and children (5). Low breast feeding rates are associated with increased morbidity and mortality amongst infants and mothers (1-3) and the use of infants formula is associated with an increased risk of four childhood illnesses; namely gastrointestinal infection, lower respiratory tract infection and acute otitis media in infants, in addition to maternal breast cancer (5).

Read more about the TEN STEPS to successful breastfeeding.


Links to relevant websites and reports

ICDAInternational Conference of Dietetic Associations
EFADEuropean Federation of the Associations of Dietitians
European Dietetic AssociationsA list of full members of EFAD
BAPENThe British Association of Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition
Dietitians Association of AustraliaDietitians Association of Australia
New Zealand Dietetic AssociationNew Zealand Dietetic Association
Dietitians of CanadaCanadian Dietetic association
AFDAAsian Federation of Dietetic Associations
Eat Right, Academy of Nutrition and DieteticsThe American Dietetic Association
ASPENThe American Society for Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition
ESPENThe European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism
ESPGHANEuropean Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition
EFSA Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for energyScientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for energy
PEN NutritionThe global resource for Nutrition practice
Dutch Malnutrition Steering GroupToolkits and information for early recognition and treatment of malnurition - The Dutch Approach
Dutch consensus statement on Refeeding syndromeThis consensus statement gives guidance to the definition, prevention, recognition and treatment of refeeding
APACHE II scoreAcute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II is a widely accepted scoring system to indicate the severity of the disease of adult patients upon admission to an Intensive Care Unit
MUST online calculatorAn easy online calculator to establish nutritional risk using 'MUST'
WHO report on protein and amino acid requirements (2007)Protein and amino acid requirements in human nutrition
Report of a joint FAO/WHO/UNU expert consultation
WHO report Human Energy Requirements, 2001Human energy requirements
Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation
worldobesity.orgExtended International (IOTF) Body Mass Index Cut-Offs for Thinness, Overweight and Obesity in Children
WHO guideline: Update on the management of severe acute malnutrition in infants and children A manual for physicians, dietitians and other senior health workers