This table gives an overview of the questionnaires and measurement instruments commonly used to provide an objective view of the psychological status that are relevant for dietitians
QuestionnaireTarget groupScore range and cut-off point
BES Body Esteem ScaleChildren and adults (12-25 years old)0-4 points
A higher score corresponds to a better self-image
CES-D Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression ScaleGeneral0-60
CSDD Cornell Scale for Depression in DementiaDementia patients0-38
>8 suggests slight depression
>12 suggests moderate/severe depression
DOS Delirium Observation ScaleGeneral0-3
<3 no delirium
≥3 probable delirium
HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression SubscaleGeneral0-21, 7 questions about fear, 7 about depression
Fear questions: >8 indicates psychiatric mental health state of fear
Depression questions: >8 indicates psychiatric health state of depression
GDS (GDS-30/GDS-15/GDS-8) Geriatric Depression Scale (30, 15 or 8 items)Older adults0-30
GDS-30, 0-10 not depressed
GDS-30, 11-20 mildly depressed
GDS-30, 21-30 severely depressed
GDS-15, ≥6 possibly depressed
GDS-8, ≥3 possibly depressed
MMSE Mini-Mental State ExaminationOlder adults0-30
≥25, normal cognitive function
21-24 mild cognitive impairment
10-20 moderate cognitive impairment
≤9 severe cognitive impairment
PAID Problem Areas in Diabetes scoreDiabetes mellitus patientsAvailable as PAID, PAID-5, and PAID-1 (5-point scale)
Domains: emotional problems, treatment-related problems, food-related problems, social network-related problems
WHO-5 well-being indexAdultsFive questions to be completed by patient. A high score corresponds to a good mental state of well-being in the past 2 weeks
DEBQ Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire Adults (from age 12 years and older)Average score of 6 open and 33 closed questions
Eating with vague emotions; eating with evident emotions; emotional eating; external eating; restrained eating

DEBQ-C Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire ChildrenChildren (7-12 years old)Average of 20 closed questions